Polymer brushes, polyelectrolyte multilayers and hydrogels are typically used to achieve desirable properties. Key parameters influencing these properties are layer conformation and the degree of hydration. Here we show a straightforward way to measure polymer brush swelling and collapse.
Regular inspection of the transformer oil quality is important to ensure the operation of the transformer. Several methods are available, but the newly released IEC 62691 standard is based on the interfacial tension measurement between water and the transformer oil.
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