Regular inspection of the transformer oil quality is important to ensure the operation of the transformer. Several methods are available, but the newly released IEC 62691 standard is based on the interfacial tension measurement between water and the transformer oil.
In enhanced oil recovery wettability plays an important role as that determines the interactions between the solid (rock) and the liquids in the reservoirs (crude oil, brine). Wettability has been recognized as one of the key parameters controlling the remaining oil-in-place.
Graphene oxide (GO) is the oxidized form of graphene. Graphene oxide is easy to process since it is dispersible in water and other solvents. Due to the oxygen in its lattice graphene oxide is not conductive, but it can be reduced to graphene by chemical methods.
Surface free energy can be considered as the surface tension of a solid. Surface free energy is calculated through the contact angle measurements. By knowing the surface free energy of the solid, one can predict the behavior of any liquid on the surface.
In industry, wettability is important for example when manufacturing electronics or when planning how to extract oil from the oil reservoir. In all these applications, knowing the contact angle value gives a strong indication on the performance of the product or a successfulness of the process.
The new standard IEC 62961 for the transformer oil quality testing has just been released. In this blog post, the main differences between the old ASTM D971 and the new IEC 62961 standard are discussed.
The measurement methods can be divided into optical (needle and tilting methods) and force (Wilhelmy method) depending on the measurement principle used. All the methods are measuring advancing and receding contact angles which are used to calculate contact angle hysteresis.
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